CIOTS logo

Center for Innovative OT Solutions

History of the ESI

The development of the ESI can be considered to have begun with the work of Doble and Magill-Evans (1992) when they developed an occupational therapy model of social interaction. The first taxonomy of social interaction skills was presented by Fisher and Kielhofner in 1995. A precursor to the ESI, the Assessment of Social Interaction (ASI), was first developed by Englund beginning in 1992 (Englund, 1997; Englund, Bernspång, & Fisher, 1995). In 2002, Fisher (2002/2006, 2006, 2009) began a process of refining and further clarifying the ASI items for inclusion in the Occupational Therapy Intervention Process Model (OTIPM) (Fisher, 1998, 2002/2006, 2009). As part of that process, Fisher implemented a careful review of the actions listed in (a) the Communication and (b) the Interpersonal Interactions and Relationships domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) (World Health Organization [WHO], 2001) to identify potential gaps in the content of the ASI. This resulted in several new items being added, and in others being revised. The revised ASI was evaluated in a series of pilot studies, and the results provided the basis for the ESI.

A summary of the history of the ESI and the preliminary validity and reliability evidence can be read in the ESI Manual, Chapter 2. Details of the changes in the ESI over time are summarized in Appendix A of the ESI manual.